“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places...” (Eph. 1:3)1
What are the things that get you really excited?2 Perhaps it’s a financial windfall in your business, getting a great promotion, or being able to finally purchase that new luxury car. Moving a little back in time (or a lot back in time for some of us!) maybe it was in high school when you asked out that girl or that guy...and they said yes! Moving even further back in time, maybe it was when you had difficulty sleeping the night before Christmas morning. Lying awake you couldn’t help but think of all those presents just waiting to be unwrapped. How could you possibly sleep when there would be such blessings the following day!
Today we are going to look at a place where Paul really has his juices going! In fact, he is so excited that he breaks with the typical format of his letters. This is usually the place in the letter where we would find Paul thanking God for whomever the letter addresses.3 But Paul breaks with his usual practice by including a long exclamation of praise here instead. (He will finally get to the thanksgiving down in verse 15.)4 And it is one long exclamation indeed—the sentence starts in verse 3 and carries on until the end of verse 14!5 (The translators, however, have wisely broken it up for us.6) Andrew Lincoln estimates that this is the longest sentence in the New Testament.7 In 1913 German scholar Eduard Norden called this “the most monstrous sentence conglomeration...that I have encountered in Greek.”8 However correct Norden may be from a grammatical standpoint, his comment may not be entirely fair because here the form certainly matches the function.9 Paul is carried away in praise and so he goes on and on!10 We get such a sense of his excitement in these verses. He...gushes. He almost...rambles in his excitement over God and what God has done for us in Christ.
This post will examine verse 3 and do a sort of overview of verses 3-14 which will be unpacked in a series of posts to follow. The main point of Ephesians 1:3 is that we should praise God for all of the rich spiritual blessings he has given to us.11 We will unpack that point by looking at two things about God in this text. He is the One who is blessed (Eph. 1:3a)12 and the One who blesses (Eph. 1:3b)13
The One Who Is Blessed
The words, “Blessed [be]...” begin this long exclamation of praise. The word for “blessed” here is the word from which we get the word “eulogy.”14 Although this is not the kind of eulogy we are usually used to, the words are still related. What, after all, do we do in a eulogy? We finally get around to speaking well of a person! So Paul’s meaning here is, “May God be well spoken of...” or, “May God be praised.”
So who is this One who is blessed so profoundly? This One who is blessed is God. The One who created the universe. The One who called Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The One who led Israel out of captivity in Egypt. The One who gave Moses the law. The One who placed David on the throne and gave kings to his people. The One who sent prophets to Israel over and over to turn them back to him. The One who banished his people into exile for turning away. The One who graciously brought them back out of exile again. The One who promised a coming deliver. The One who in the fullness of time sent his own Son.
But notice that this is not just God in the abstract. Paul does not have in mind some unknown, nameless, or faceless God.15 This is a God who stands in a particular relationship to Jesus. He is “the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ...” (Eph. 1:3).16
There is a suggestive parallel here with the Eighteen Benedictions, eighteen blessings that are pronounced in Jewish worship in the synagogues. It is quite possible that Paul knew and recited some of these prayers. The first of these eighteen blessings reads:
Blessed art thou, O Lord our God and God of our fathers, God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, the great, mighty and revered God, the most high God, who bestowest loving-kindness and possessest all things; who rememberest the pious deeds of the patriarchs and in love will bring a redeemer to their children’s children for thy name’s sake.17
Notice how the Eighteen Benedictions pronounce blessing on the One who is “God and God of our fathers.” But Paul does not characterize God as the God of our fathers—though that is indeed the case. He says that he is the God and Father of the Lord Jesus.18
One of those odd little things about Jesus is that he liked to call God his “Father.” This shocked Jewish sensibilities in his day. He even used a very personal expression in Aramaic to denote this relationship—calling God “Abba.”19 At times the terms in which he expressed his sonship reached such a height that the Jews understood that he was actually claiming deity for himself. In John 5:18 we read, “This was why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God.” Did you catch that? Jesus’ sonship—in this sense—actually indicates his deity. Why would that be? It’s because a son bears the characteristics of his father.20 One who perfectly bore the essence, attributes, and character of God would have to be...fully divine himself.21 Murray Harris aptly summarized the principle this way: “Unique sonship implies deity.”22 Harris is quite right. As Son, Jesus expresses and possesses the nature and character of his Father—both fully and perfectly.23 (So don’t ever let a Jehovah’s Witness tell you that “Jesus is not God, he’s the Son of God.”) He perfectly reveals who his Father is.24
The One who is blessed here by Paul is both the God and the Father revealed by Jesus Christ.25 This is not the god of Mohammed. This is not the impersonal god of deism. Or one of the millions of gods of Hinduism. This is not just the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob—although that he is. But we can’t stop God’s revelation of himself to the patriarchs or to Moses or to the prophets after them. This is the God revealed supremely and definitively in and through Jesus Christ.26 It is the One who is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus.
This One who is blessed in the first part of our verse is also the One who blesses in the second part of the verse.
The One Who Blesses
God is a God who blesses. He delights to bless. He takes pleasure in it. It expresses his very nature to give.27 The second half of verse three give us four characteristics of the blessings God gives.
(1) They are given to us “in Christ.”28 We said in an earlier post that being “in Christ” means we are spiritually united to him.29 As a result of this spiritual union with Christ we become his. And everything Christ is and has becomes ours.30 These are benefits that we receive being united to him.31
(2) They are comprehensive (“every”). There is nothing lacking. God does not give by half measures. He has not left out any needed blessing. And why would he? Romans 8:32 says: “He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, how will he not also with him graciously give us all things?” This verse argues from the greater to the lesser. If someone is willing to give you a million dollars wouldn’t they be willing to give you five bucks? In similar fashion, God has already given us his precious Son. What good thing then would he ever withhold from us (cf. Psalm 84:11).
(3) They are spiritual in nature.32 We want to make sure we know what kind of blessings Paul is talking about here. He calls them “spiritual.” Now when we look at the way Paul uses the term “spiritual,” we see that for him this term denotes something that is imparted, endowed, or empowered by the Holy Spirit.33 In 1 Cor. 2:23 spiritual truths are truths the Spirit teaches. In 1 Cor. 12:1 and 14:1 spiritual gifts are supernatural enablements from the Holy Spirit. Similarly, the spiritual man in 1 Cor. 2:15 is the person enlightened by the Spirit.34
Now things that are spiritual sometimes stand in contrast with things that are physical or material in nature (Rom. 15:27; 1 Cor. 9:11)35 but that does not mean that something that is spiritual is always immaterial.36 The spiritual body in 1 Cor. 15:44 is not immaterial but a body which the Spirits creates, energizes, and “controls.”37 The spiritual food and drink the Israelites partook of in 1 Cor. 10:3-4 was not immaterial, but it was not purely natural either. It was supernaturally created and given by Christ (whom Paul calls the spiritual Rock!)—thus Paul calls it “spiritual” even though there was a material aspect to it.38 The same will be true of our resurrection body one day—so Paul can call it a “spiritual” body. So something that is spiritual is not always immaterial; but it is always supernatural.39
So the blessings that Paul will talk about here are not things that belong to the realm of the natural but things that belong to the realm of the supernatural.40 They are things that have to be imparted by God the Holy Spirit.41 In fact, one older commentator actually translates this phrase as “with every blessing of the Spirit.”42 You are not going to stumble across these blessings at a garage sale. You won’t find them on a rack at Walmart or happen upon them at a Shopko going-out-of-business sale. They have to be imparted by the Spirit.43
Now God has given us a lot of purely natural and earthly blessings also44 (such as food, clothing, etc.) and we owe him praise for these as well. But these come naturally through God’s providence and not in the kind of supernatural way that Paul envisions here.45 That is why even unbelievers without the Spirit can enjoy these kinds of blessings and benefits. And it would also not be accurate to say that God has given us every one of these.46 For example, I don’t own a Lamborghini...and I never will! I have just about zero musical talent. And while there is always food on the table, I don’t eat expensive steaks (anymore). But Paul focuses in here on the spiritual blessings that God gives—which are far more valuable.47
So what are these blessings? The rest of the passage will unfold them for us:48
- Chosen to be holy and blameless (v. 4)
- Predestined to be adopted as sons (v. 5)
- Redemption—or release—from sins (v. 7)
- Knowledge of his plan and purpose (vv. 9-10)
- An inheritance (v. 11)
- The sealing of the Spirit (vv. 13-14)
What an amazing list of blessings!
(4) They are located “in the heavenly places.”49 What might that mean? For starters, when we look at this list of blessings, these are things that have primarily happened in heaven. Think back to the list that we just read. Where were we chosen? By God...in heaven. Where are we declared holy and blameless? Before him. Where were we predestined? In heaven. Where does God’s decree that we are forgiven of all our sins take place? It happens in heaven. Even our inheritance is said by Peter in his own eulogy to be in heaven: “he has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you” (1 Pet. 1:3-4). Now these things certainly work themselves out on earth. We begin to live holy lives here. We experience the indwelling of the Spirit here. But they are things that essentially take place in heaven.
Be all of that as it may, there is an even more fundamental reason why these blessings are very appropriately characterized as being in heaven.50 Think back to point (1) above. Paul said earlier that these are blessings we have “in Christ.” He will go on to say in Eph. 1:20 that God raised Jesus and “seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places.”51 If Christ is located in heaven and these blessings are located in Christ then it makes perfect sense that they are located in heaven. If the cookie is in the cookie jar and the cookie jar is on the shelf then the cookie is on the shelf! Clearly.
Fortunately in some mysterious sense heaven is where we are located as well!52 Ephesians 2:4-6 tells us: “But God, being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which he loved us, even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ—by grace you have been saved—and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus...” We are currently reckoned to be in heaven because Jesus—who represents us—is in heaven.53
An Objection and an Illustration
So we have all of this in heaven. But is that like saying someone has put a billion dollars in an account with your name on it...but it’s in an offshore bank account...and you don’t get to touch it until you die?
Imagine you are a wanted criminal over in England perhaps because of some misdeeds done while on holiday there. But let’s further pretend that later this afternoon the queen of England decides to adopt you as her child. Now such an adoption is something that happens in England. But it certainly has effects on you in America as well. For example, there is an instant change in your status—you are now a British citizen. Not only would you be a British citizen, but you have the status of royalty with all the rights, prerogatives, and privileges thereof. There was a party in England when the adoption took place. Some of your friends in England were able to attend. There would also be the cancellation of the warrant for your arrest which would lead to a new sense of freedom and pardon (you would no longer have to fear that MI-6 agent crawling through your window at night to hunt you down). You would also have access to the British embassy here in America (which I would propose is a great analogy for the church). In short although this change in status is something that happens and is true of you in England, you would feel the effects of it in America as well. (And we could make the analogy even tighter if there were someone representing us in England, perhaps with power of attorney to transact business on our behalf, so that it would not be wrong to say in an important sense [representatively] that we were in England as well...)
Not only can we experience the benefits of these blessings here on earth,56 there are also definite benefits to these blessings being in heaven.
First, they are secure.57 Remember what Peter said about our inheritance? It is “kept in heaven for you” (1 Pet. 1:4). That’s a good thing because these blessings are secure. If they were here on earth we could lose them (Matt. 6:19-20). They could be stolen. They could break. We could be robbed of them by misfortune. My wife and I recently purchased a renter’s policy? Why? Because our stuff is not safe here on earth! But these blessings are heavenly. Nothing will get to them! Nothing will be able to take them from us. They are secure.
Second, they are eternal. There is nothing you have right now that you will keep. But these blessings can never be lost.
Third, one day they will be here. Scholars like N. T. Wright have correctly pointed out that our ultimate hope as believers does not rest in the eternal bliss of heaven someday after we die.58 Our ultimate hope is that one day heaven is going to come down here.59 One day Jesus—who is in heaven and who is our Chief Blessing—will descend to earth again, and our heavenly blessing will be enjoyed on a new earth forever and ever. In that day earthly blessing and heavenly blessing will be one.60
Application: Appropriating Praise
What should our response to all this be? In a single word...praise! We should praise God for all of the rich spiritual blessings he has given to us. I would suggest (along with the good Doctor Martyn Lloyd-Jones) that this is a very good test of the true level of our spirituality.61 Do you have a desire to spend time praising God not just on Sunday mornings but also in your day-to-day? When you go to do your devotional time, do you jump right in to requests? Or is your desire to praise God?
We would think that this would be easy with everything that God has done for us. But if your heart is like my heart, there are times that this is sadly not the case. We’ve all been at a place in our Christian walk where we don’t feel like praising God. How do we respond to that in our own souls? I leave you with three words.
(1) Recalibrate your thinking. If we feel this way we may not be rightly valuing and evaluating what we have. We have perhaps even elevated some earthly blessing over true spiritual blessing. Professor Peter Gentry, writing about the true meaning of blessing asks, “Does blessing mean health, business success, being surrounded by a circle of friends (on Facebook?), having influence and power, having a big house and car, having better sex?”62 Gentry concludes: “As Abraham’s life unfolds, we begin to see what blessing means. Blessing operates in the context of a covenant relationship with God.”63
That relationship always has to be primary. If we start to elevate and value temporal blessings (which are certainly all from God since there is no other source of blessing)64 over spiritual goods then when we lack those temporal blessings we begin to feel...slighted. If that is where you find yourself, then... recalibrate your thinking. Remember—in Christ you have the greatest blessings there are.65 And you have all of them.
(2) Meditate or ruminate on the goodness and love of God. Think about all of the good things he has given you in creation. Chew on the good things he has done for you in salvation. It is very hard to stay discontent with someone who loves you deeply. You can. But it’s hard. If we are discontent with God rather than worshipful, we only manage to maintain that state by shutting our eyes to God’s goodness to us.
(3) Venerate—make a decision of the will to worship God. Paul tells us to rejoice...always (1 Thess. 5:17). Make a conscious decision that you will choose to worship God. Pastor John Piper, tweaking the puritan writer Richard Baxter, said, “Thanksgiving with the mouth stirs up thankfulness in the heart.”66
As we recalibrate our thinking, meditate on the goodness and love of God toward us, and make a conscious choice to worship the Lord, over time we will find that praise begins to naturally bubble up out of our hearts.
1 Scripture quotations are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version, copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
2 Do I owe this way of introducing this passage to some other speaker? I will never know for sure...
3 Cf. independently (but modified after reading) Harold W. Hoehner, Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2002), 153, 158 n. 6, 162; cf. Andrew T. Lincoln, Ephesians, Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 42 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1990), 19.
4 Cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 153.
5 Cf. (before review) John MacAurther, Ephesians, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1986), 5; independently Lincoln, Ephesians, 9, 11, 15; Hoehner, Ephesians, 153. I may also owe this way of stating it to an address by D. A. Carson at the Basics Conference of Parkside Church.
6 Cf. independently Lincoln, Ephesians, 9.
7 Lincoln, Ephesians, 11.
8 Eduard Norden, Agnostos Theos (Berlin: Teubner, 1913), 253; as quoted in Lincoln, Ephesians, 11; cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 153.
9 Following Lincoln, Ephesians, 12, 14.
10 Cf. Lincoln, Ephesians, 10, 12.
11 Cf. independently Matthew Henry, “Ephesians,” in Acts to Revelation, vol. 6 of Matthew Henry’s Commentary (reprint Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991), 553; William Hendriksen, “Ephesians,” in Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon, New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker 1967), 72; Hoehner, Ephesians, 159; D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose: An Exposition of Ephesians 1:1 to 23 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1978), 48-51 (cf. 56).
12 Cf. independently Hoehner, Ephesians, 163.
13 Cf. independently (or at least before review), MacArthur, Ephesians, 7.
14 Cf. (before review) MacArthur, Ephesians, 7 (similar); independently Hoehner, Ephesians, 157.
15 Cf. Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 42-43.
16 Cf. independently Lincoln, Ephesians, 11; Hoehner, Ephesians, 164-165; Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 55.
17 The Authorized Daily Prayer Book of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Commonwealth of Nations, trans. S. Singer (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode Ltd., 1962), 46; as quoted in Lincoln, Ephesians, 10. On the Eighteen Benedictions see The Jewish Encyclopedia available at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5480-eighteen-benedictions#anchor15 (accessed May 16, 2019).
18 Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 54, 63, makes a similar observation though he does not explicitly mention the Eighteen Benedictions.
19 Hoehner, Ephesians, 150.
20 See Robert M. Bowman, Jr. and J. Ed Komoszewski, Putting Jesus in His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ, (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2007), 71, 78-81, 139, 271.
21 Cf. (before review) Bowman and Komoszewski, Putting Jesus in His Place, 73-74, 79, 271; Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 547.
22 Murray J. Harris, Jesus As God: The New Testament Use of Theos in Reference to Jesus (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1992), 125.
23 Cf. (before review) Bowman and Komoszewski, Putting Jesus in His Place, 74, 79 (similar), 271; cf. (before review) Bruce A. Ware, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit: Relationships, Roles, and Relevance (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2005), 69.
24 Cf. (before review) Bowman and Komoszewski, Putting Jesus in His Place, 73, 78, 79 (similar), 81 (slight modification after review).
25 Cf. independently Lincoln, Ephesians, 11; Hoehner, Ephesians, 164-165.
26 Although this is a common enough phrase, I believe I picked up the “in and through Jesus” language from Lloyd-Jones. See God’s Ultimate Purpose, 18, 20, 21, 43, 54, 55, 58, 59, 61, 79, 94, 95, etc.
27 This point has often been made.
28 Cf. independently Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 58.
29 Cf. Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 31, 60; cf. (before review) MacArthur, Ephesians, 10.
30 Cf. independently Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 32, 71, 74.
31 Cf. Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 58, 60-62, 71, 74.
32 Cf. independently Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 60, 69.
33 Cf. MacArthur, Ephesians, 8; Hoehner, Ephesians, 168-169; Lincoln, Ephesians, 19-20; Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 60-62; Charles John Ellicott, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians: With a Critical and Grammatical Commentary, and a Revised Translation, 4th rev. ed. (London: Longmans, Green Reader & Dyer, 1868), 5.
34 Cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 167; N. T. Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004), 282, 349-350.
35 Hoehner, Ephesians, 168.
36 Cf. MacArthur, Ephesians, 8 though we have come to a slightly different conclusion based on our own word study; cf. Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God, 348 n.107, 349-351; William Lane Craig, “The Bodily Resurrection of Jesus,” in Studies of History and Tradition in the Four Gospels, vol. 1 of Gospel Perspectives, eds. R.T. France and David Wenham (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 1981), 54, 58, 59, 64.
37 Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God, 286, 295, 350-354; cf. Craig, “The Bodily Resurrection of Jesus,” 54, 58-59; Hoehner, Ephesians, 167-168.
38 Cf. Wright, The Resurrection of the Son of God, 350 n.115.
39 Cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 168; Craig, “The Bodily Resurrection of Jesus,” 54.
40 Hoehner, Ephesians, 168; Craig, “The Bodily Resurrection of Jesus,” 54.
41 Hoehner, Ephesians, 168, 169 (similar); Lincoln, Ephesians, 19-20; Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 60-62; Ellicott, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians, 5.
42 Ellicott, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians, 5.
43 Cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 168, 169 (similar); Lincoln, Ephesians, 19-20; Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 60-62; Ellicott, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians, 5.
44 Cf. independently Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 65.
45 On this and the next sentence following Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 58.
46 Henry, “Ephesians,” 553.
47 Cf. independently Henry, “Ephesians,” 553.
48 Cf. Hendricksen, “Ephesians,” 73-74.
49 Cf. independently Lincoln, Ephesians, 20-21; Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 62, 69.
50 Cf. Lincoln, Ephesians, 21.
51 Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 71, 75.
52 Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 71, 75-77.
53 Lincoln, Ephesians, 22 (similar); Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 71, 75-77.
54 Lincoln, Ephesians, 21 (first part similar); cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 169-170, and 169-170 n. 5 (but the relevant comment of this note which ends on page 169 and continues on page 170 is at the top of the notes on page 170); Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 63 (similar), 65-67, 69.
55 The following illustration was developed in collaboration with Inok Kaczorowski.
56 Lincoln, Ephesians, 21; cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 169-170, and 169-170 n. 5 (but the relevant comment of this note which ends on page 169 and continues on page 170 is at the top of the notes on page 170); but cf. Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 66-67 (but cf. 63, 65).
57 Cf. (before review) MacArthur, Ephesians, 8.
58 N. T. Wright, The New Testament and the People of God, (Minneapolis, Fortress Press, 1992), 286; Wright, Resurrection of the Son of God, 213, 353, 355, 367, 368 (similar), 494, 516, 582-583; cf. also Michael Wittmer, Becoming Worldly Saints: Can You Serve Jesus and Still Enjoy Your Life? (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2015), 52, etc.
59 Cf. independently Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 80.
60 Cf. (before review) Wright, Resurrection of the Son of God, 217.
61 Lloyd-Jones, God’s Ultimate Purpose, 49-50.
62 Peter J. Gentry and Stephen J. Wellum, Kingdom through Covenant: A Biblical-Theological Understanding of the Covenants (Wheaton, IL: Crossway 2012), 241-242.
63 Gentry and Wellum, Kingdom through Covenant, 242.
64 Cf. (before review) MacArthur, Ephesians, 7-8.
65 Cf. independently Henry, “Ephesians,” 553.
66 John Piper, When the Darkness Will Not Lift: Doing What We Can While We Wait for Joy—and God, (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2006), 51; modifying Richard Baxter, “The Cure of Melancholy and Overmuch Sorrow by Faith and Physic,” in Puritan Sermons 1659-1689, vol. 3, ed. Samuel Annesley (Wheaton, IL: Richard Owen Roberts Publishers, 1981), 281.